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Studies for the European Parliament and Commission

Study on the Liability of Online Platforms

The study written by Andrea Bertolini, Assistant Professor of Private Law of the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (Pisa), and Director of the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence on the Regulation of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence (EURA), Francesca Episcopo and Nicoleta-Angela Cherciu, Research Fellows in Private Law of the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (Pisa), and Junior Fellows of EURA, at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA):

-reviews the main legal/regulatory challenges associated with the operation of online platforms, the incentives for online platforms, their users and third parties, to detect and remove illegal/harmful and dangerous material, content and/or products;

- maps and critically assesses the whole range of online platforms liabilities, taking hard and soft law, self-regulation, as well as national legislation into consideration;

- drafts policy options for an efficient EU liability regime.

Artificial Intelligence and Civil Liability

This study – commissioned by the Policy Department C at the request of the Committee on Legal Affairs – analyses the notion of AI-technologies and the applicable legal framework for civil liability. It demonstrates how technology regulation should be technology-specific, and presents a Risk Management Approach, where the party who is best capable of controlling and managing a technology-related risk is held strictly liable, as a single entry point for litigation. It then applies such approach to four case-studies, to elaborate recommendations.

 

Artificial Intelligence and civil law; liability rules for drones

This study – commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee – analyses existing European and national legislation on the regulation of drones for civil use, discussing how they are defined and classified, whether certification and registration is required, how liability is apportioned between the subjects involved, and if compulsory insurance is provided for. Finally, on the basis of a risk-management approach, the study elaborates recommendations for future policy formulation.

 

Study on safety of non-embedded software - Service, data access, and legal issues of advanced robots, autonomous, connected, and AI-based vehicles and systems : final study report regarding CAD/CCAM and industrial robots

This study –  commissioned by the European Commission, Directorate-General of Communications Networks, Content & Technology  and carried out by EURA team from Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna Pisa coordinated by Prof. Andrea Bertolini together with TNO and VVA – analysed the legal and business landscape and the challenges and opportunities related to new advanced technologies associated with digitisation and AI. Prof. Bertolini’s team analyzed the testing, certification, and liability framework applicable to industrial robots and Collaborative Automated Driving - Cooperative, Connected and Automated Mobility in Europe and eight Member States. The team analysed how high levels of product quality and safety can be ensured and how liability rules can be shaped to provide desirable incentives to all players involved.

 

Study Report regarding Safety of Health, Lifestyle and Wellbeing Apps

This study – commissioned by the European Commission, Directorate-General of Communications Networks, Content & Technology  and carried out by EURA team from Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna Pisa coordinated by Prof. Andrea Bertolini together with TNO and VVA – analysed the existence and/or lack of European and Member States’ legislation covering the safety of health, lifestyle and wellbeing apps based on desk research, confirmed via stakeholder consultation and a workshop.

Studies for the European Parliament and Commission | EURA

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